Technique: Sissi Siska: Transforming Silk Painting

7 Jul 2008

0712sisk2_400x600_2New Jersey artist Sissi Siska reinvents traditional silk-painting techniques to create multimedia works of art.

by Stephanie Kaplan

Orchids on Blue Ferns by Sissi Siska, 2005, dyes, gutta, and wax on crepe de chine silk, 6’ x 3’. Collection the artist. 0712sisk2_400x600
Orchids on Blue Ferns
2005, dyes, gutta, and wax
on crepe de chine silk,
6’ x 3’. Collection the artist.
Detail of Orchids
on Blue Ferns.

New Jersey artist Sissi Siska transforms delicate pieces of silk into complex paintings with many dimensions. Formerly a textile designer, Siska has been painting silk for more than 20 years. “Having had no formal training in textile arts, I learned the original French technique of painting on silk —gutta-serti resist—by trial and error,” Siska explains.

Experimentation and the willingness to try new techniques are at the core of Siska’s silk-painting technique. The artist mostly uses crepe de chine or jacquard silk, which are similar to the weight of a silk scarf. She prefers these silks because they have a tooth—similar to the tooth in watercolor paper—that accepts more dye. “I like to find unusual silk fabrics with unusual weaves,” the artist says. “When the light hits the pattern it produces a luster that adds dimension to the overall composition.” Siska prefers dyes made by Dupont or Sennelier, but emphasizes, “Each color and fabric has its own personality.” These dyes produce brilliant colors and maintain the silk’s smooth texture.

0712sisk3_600x536 0712sisk6_540x600
Harlequin
This textile design sample
demonstrates Siska’s various
wax techniques,
including crackling.
Green Orchid
This sample illustrates
the crackle technique
in the stamen of
the flower.

Siska begins her process by stretching a piece of white silk on an open frame to create her canvas. She works on frames constructed from soft wood. “Because I add many layers of dye to the fabric, the silk sags, and I need to keep stretching the fabric over and over again as I work,” she says. The artist also uses a special Japanese stretching system that can accommodate cloth as large as nine feet long. Because spontaneity is the key to her creative process, Siska rarely completes preliminary sketches for her paintings. She makes an exception for elaborate borders and large banners because it is difficult to create these compositions completely by eye. If needed, she will begin with a graphite sketch on tracing paper. This drawing is then placed underneath the silk when it is stretched out on the frame.

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Mauve Orchids With Ginger
2004, dyes, gutta, and
wax on crepe de chine
silk, 9’ x 3’. Collection
the artist.

This painting was one of 12
banners selected to be
part of the Orchids!
Beauty and Beyond exhibition
at the United States
Botanical Garden in
Washington, DC, sponsored
by the Conservatory and
the Smithsonian Institution.

Siska’s modifications to the French gutta-serti resist technique make her silk paintings unique. The traditional gutta-serti technique involves outlining the compositions in white gutta, which is a solvent-based resist with the consistency of glue. Instead, Siska uses a vanishing marker to loosely place her composition on the silk—“I don’t outline everything in white because I don’t want the viewer’s eye to bounce around to all of the white outlines,” she explains. Next, she adds a background color to the composition. Once the background dries, she begins drawing with a bottle or pipette of gutta, changing the tip to create varied lines on the silk. Another layer of dye is applied around the gutta lines, and this process is repeated a number of times to create a multilayered background. “Because the silk and gutta are both white, the gutta saves the white lines and keeps the dye in the outlined areas in a way that is similar to watercolor masking,” Siska explains.

0712sisk4_600x341
Siska used a wax mask
to create deep accent
details in the center
of Mauve Orchids
With Ginger.

The artist experiments with alternatives to gutta and different ways of moving the dye around the silk canvas. She often utilizes hot wax instead of gutta to mask out sections of her compositions. “Using the wax produces a freer, more organic line than drawing with the bottle of gutta,” Siska explains. Regardless of which medium she uses, Siska constantly tests the consistency of the wax or gutta, and paints layers of dye on another board to preview color combinations. She sometimes uses salt to push the wet dye around on the silk—“this makes a very interesting background,” the artist says. To create highlights with the dye, Siska uses a pipette of alcohol or a Q-tip to lift a layer of color from the silk, and then dries the highlight immediately with a hair dryer. Removing color with bleach also creates patterns in her compositions.

0712sisk7_600x385 0712sisk8_178x600
Tools and brushes that
are used to apply wax
and dye to the silk. “
The tool with a lot of
prongs creates many
interesting wax textures,”
Siska explains.
Siska’s French steamer
has an extension to
accommodate fabric
up to 60 inches wide
and 20 yards long.

One of the artist’s most innovative techniques can be seen in Green Orchid. In floral paintings such as this, she uses what she calls the crackle technique. “I take the silk off the frame to crackle and break the wax—this creates great patterns,” Siska explains. “When you crackle silk, you give the color a specific place to go—the crackled areas in the silk are similar to the veins in a crumpled piece of wax paper.” Paraffin wax creates a heavier crackle, while softer beeswax yields a finer crackle. Once she has crackled the silk, Siska places it back on the frame, uses wax or gutta to mask around a specific crackled area, and then adds color to the crackled veins. She often repeats the crackle technique a few times to achieve multiple layers of color and texture. In Mauve Orchids With Ginger, the artist uses the crackle technique to create the details in the orchid centers.

Once Siska is satisfied with her composition, she removes the silk from the frame and uses a steamer from France to set the dyes in the fabric. She tends to steam a few paintings at a time—separated by sheets of newsprint—to prevent the paintings from soaking up too much moisture. The newsprint also soaks up the melting wax and any excess dye. Although the colors brighten and bond to the silk in about an hour, Siska leaves the paintings in the steamer for two hours to ensure that the composition is completely set. Finally, the silk painting is dry cleaned to remove any wax residue and scraps of newspaper that stick to the gutta.

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Storm Over Leland Gardens
1993, 36 x 36, dyes, gutta,
and wax on silk crepe de chine.
Collection The Bysis Group.
Dragonflies
1989, dyes, gutta, and
wax on crepe de chine silk,
22 x 18. Collection
Nolan Kierce.

Siska takes special pride in preserving her finished pieces. The artist uses 100 percent rag mount board and displays her pieces behind museum-quality glass to prevent the colors from fading. Because lighting conditions can have a profound effect on her finished work, the artist rarely exhibits her larger pieces for extended periods of time. As Siska reminds us, “A silk painting is like an antique kimono that needs to be preserved.”

For more information on Siska, visit her website at www.sissisiska.homestead.com, or contact her at siskasissi@yahoo.com.

Stephanie Kaplan is the online editor of American Artist.


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Comments

Jean-Louis Mireault wrote
on 2 Feb 2008 5:38 PM
Bravo! Finally, a silk painter in your so nice and well documented review on art. Silk painting start a long time ago, in China. Now, there are few professional silk painter and Sissi is a top one. She deserves this article so well done by Stephanie Kaplan. You may want to edit some other silk painters in your art edition. I can give you good reference, starting by me. You will find a great variety of expression with this medium. Artistically your. Jean-Louis MIreault, artiste de la soie
david christine wrote
on 29 Feb 2008 10:30 AM
bonjour, i'm french silkpainter glad to discover your site, speak of silkpainters is very gratefully, visit my web site , i'll be so happy. au revoir à bientôt christine david www.iletaitunesoie.fr
on 3 Sep 2013 4:09 PM

I am teaching a class to women at a camp call Waldamar, at the head waters of the Guadalupe River and came across your blog.  I started painting on silk around 2005, much like you - self-taught.  I painted scarves for my friends and family, but they kept hanging them on the wall, so I just started painting pictures.  Since Georgia O'keeffe is my favorite artist, my work follows the path of your subjects, florals.  I even painted my best friends cowgirl boots with a magnolia at the toes of the boots.  The boots are on a wooden table, so I had the opportunity to learn to paint wood on silk.  It looks pretty good!  But your green orchids are beautiful.  I enjoyed reading your blog.